How to Write Research Methodology like a Pro

The goal of this guide is to outline the basic concepts and key techniques of writing a methodology section for your paper.

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Academic papers (e.g., dissertation, thesis, or professional publication in a scientific journal) contain a methodology section, which combines theoretical foundations with the author’s rationale for choosing particular research methods. The methods section of any given work commonly serves as a significant indicator of research validity and effectiveness.

What is Methodology Section

The methodology section is a systemic description of actions, methods, and processes used by an author to conduct research. This includes a wide range of aspects such as applying scientific principles, collecting and analyzing information, and describing specific methodologies used to structure the research and generate a conceptual model. Methodologies commonly employ precise language, are written in past tense, and provide a listing or diagram of specific steps taken by researchers.

Importance of the Method Section in a Paper

A key principle in research, particularly in practical experimentation, is ensuring the validity of results. This is done through careful examination of the research analysis and is based on the premise that other researchers endeavoring to follow identical methods would reach similar conclusions. Ideally, research should be structured objectively and clearly defined, and its conclusions should be based on reality. A methodology section distinctly outlines the author’s research methodology, steps, techniques, and data analysis methods. The methodology should be appropriate to the type of study and fulfill its aims. Thus, you need to ensure an adequate sample size for drawing generalized conclusions, use unbiased methods, and provide competent data sets called by the type of research.

The critical goal of the methodology section is to help fellow readers, researchers, and the general academic community understand how you arrived at a specific conclusion. Professionals in the field will examine this section to ensure that ethical and scientifically consistent methods have been used in accordance with accepted practices and general regulations. Furthermore, other scholars may adopt interesting or efficient components of the methodology for use in their own individual research. As a result, corroboration by other researchers and evidence supports a study’s validity.

Research Methods

Research methods are generally classified into types in a particular field of science or industry. The first, quantitative or empirical research, focuses on numerical data and emphasizes objective knowledge. Quantitative research uses deductive logic and empirical analysis of data, drawing inferences based on demonstration of data. In comparison, qualitative research, sometimes described as an interpretive methodology, focuses on observational, comprehensive, and non-empirical methods that attempt to provide a holistic analysis. This latter type of research focuses on observable outcomes, descriptive data, and a subjective approach to the research topic. The table below provides a basic outline of the types of research methods that may be present in a methodology.

Research Approach
  • Empirical-analytical
  • Interpretive and holistic
Data Type
  • Focused on numerical data
  • Focused on observational and descriptive data
Data Handling
  • Creates operational definitions for variables
  • Qualitative and abstract observations may be classified using a numerical scale to be analyzed for patterns
  • Data collected and grouped by researchers under common themes
  • Uses strong deductive reasoning with theoretical support
  • Uses inductive reasoning to attempt to understand comprehensively the workings of a social phenomenon
  • Commonly used in natural sciences but becoming increasingly popular in social sciences to ensure higher validity
  • Used in many social sciences and research methods that cannot be easily quantified
  • Based on subjective knowledge

Structuring the Methodology Section

You will typically begin the methodology section with a description of a theoretical or conceptual framework outlining the parameters that the author plans to operate within and refer to throughout the section. Details may include traditional and accepted methods used in the field of study as well as overall design. The reader should immediately understand the aim of the research and perceive a basic outline of the method used to achieve this aim as well as the justification for the selected process. It is also important to clearly indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the chosen methodology. Competent research will address how weaknesses were mitigated and notes any issues that may be encountered (i.e., sample selection or size). The section should go on to outline the research questions and describe how the author will address each one.

Next, describe the research design, including the experimental setup or methods of the study. It is vital to connect how the selected methods work well with the research design and why this approach is helpful in investigating the research problem. Then outline the data collection methods, including the specific method of collecting data used in the research, such as an interview, survey, trial, or other acceptable scientific tool. Briefly describe the sample size and other characteristics relevant to data collection. If the methodology is focused on literature synthesis or use of archival data, document the origin of the information in detail. Connect all this once again to the research problem and provide a logical rationale for the role of these methods in the scientific investigation.

Finally, outline the data analysis methods, including any tools and techniques used for data analysis such as statistical analysis, computer software, thematic categorizing, and coding. In this section, describe the implications for the research in terms of how the data analysis reveals the influence of variables on research outcomes. Include a detailed description of any derived patterns or trends to analyze or explain the collected data.

Recommendations and Errors to Avoid

  • Include the limitations of the research, such as problems that occurred during data collection or analysis. Mentioning these will help to guide the discussion as well as ensure that any follow-up research anticipates potential setbacks. Document any issues and describe the selected method of overcoming them. Ignoring and not mentioning such things is not only unethical but it jeopardizes the scientific validity of the research.
  • Include a literature review but do not focus on basic concepts. The methodology section can offer a minimal literature review to outline its conceptual framework or justify the use of particular methods. However, the methodology is not intended to provide a step-by-step guide but presents a general overview with relevant explanations for data collection and analysis. Therefore, describing specific mechanics or minute actions is not necessary.
  • Maintain an appropriate amount of detail. A methodology section should be precise and clear. Extensive detail may confuse the reader and divert from the primary purpose of the researcher. This section is methodical; analysis should take place in the discussion section of the paper.


Overall, the methodology section is a key part of any academic or scientific work. It clearly outlines the methods selected and used in the research process as well as factors for data analysis. A study’s methodology is vital to its validity and helps the reader understand the type of research involved. The methodology includes a variety of aspects but should be precise, including relevant detail and reflecting a conceptual framework.

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