CiteTotal.com is all about sharing the knowledge about academic referencing and writing in all of its shapes and forms. Our resource is entirely free to access for all the students. So don’t hesitate to check out our guides and use the referencing tools to make your works flawless.
Apart from referencing tools, there's also a number of guides that will help you with proper academic citing in some of the most common styles. Click the links below to find out more.
Lots of students, writers, and editors struggle to learn the rules of researching, writing, and formatting their papers according to different citation styles. American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association of America (MLA), University of Chicago Press are some of the most famous and influential organizations in academic writing for American English. Usually, the bottleneck for any trying to master the principles of academic writing is how to cite and format the sources used in text. Some citation styles slightly differ from each other while others have a huge gap in structuring reference list entries and formatting in-text citations. So, for each student, it’s a cornerstone of paper writing to learn the rules of the style they have to use.
|In-text citations||Reference list entries|
|A citation is the mentioning of a particular source in the body of the paper.||It is the information about a source that you put on a separate page containing the list of all works cited in the paper.|
| Types of in-text citation: |
Parenthetical citation: You list the sources in the reference list in alphabetical order. While referring to the source in text, you mention its author’s or editor’s last name, year, and/or page number in parentheses.
Note citation: You reference the source via a footnote or an endnote. Additionally, you may be required to list the sources in Bibliography.
Numeric citation: You use numbers to list the sources in the end of the paper and refer to the source in text using the corresponding number.
| The title for the list of sources varies depending on citation style you use: |
“References” in AMA, APA, Chicago (Author-Date), and Vancouver,
“Works Cited” in MLA,
“Reference list” in Harvard,
“Bibliography” in Chicago (Notes-Bibliography).
Below there is a table where you can see what disciplines a particular citation style is used for.
|Citation style||Disciplines||Type of citation|
|MLA||Humanities: Literature, Languages, Arts, History, and so on.||Use parenthetical citations in-text and name your list of sources as “Works Cited”.|
|APA||Communication studies, Economics, Education, Law, Political science, Psychology, Sociology||Format citations in text in parentheses and use “References” at the end of the paper to refer to the sources used.|
|Chicago Notes & Bibliography||Literature, History, and the Arts||Refer to your sources in footnotes and link them to “Bibliography” list.|
|Chicago Author-Date||Physical, Natural, or Social Sciences||Resort to parenthetical in-text citations and “References” at the end.|
|Vancouver||Physical Sciences, Medicine||Use numeric citations in text and link them to the sources in “Reference list”.|
|Harvard||Physical Sciences, Medicine||Use parenthetical citations in-text and match them with the sources mentioned in “Reference list”. This style is similar to APA style in structuring reference entries.|
|OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities)||Law (mostly, for UK legislation)||Use exclusively footnotes for primary sources (cases and other legal materials). Only secondary sources (such as book, articles, etc.) are mentioned in “Bibliography” as well.|
|AMA||Medicine||AMA is a documentary-note style. Put a number in your text to cite the source and list “References” in numerical order at the end of the paper.|
|Bluebook||US legal documents||This style is developed for both academics (The Whitepages) and practitioners (The Bluepages). Use citations either within text following the evidence they support or in footnotes if allowed or required.|
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